Solar System - The Sun
The Sun is 4.5 - 5.0 billion years old. In the past it was fainter. The sun produces light by nuclear-fusion.
The Facts Are .....
Evidence that the sun is shrinking has come from Professor Wan Lai of the Shanghai Observatory of the Chinese Academy of Science. The rates of shrinkage obtained are 1.5km per year. This was derived from the data that the sun has shrunk 410km in the 273 years from 1715 to 1987. At this rate of shrinkage, if the sun was one million years old it would have been twice its current diameter. Ten million years ago it would have been too hot for life to exist on earth. It would be touching the earth if it was 210 million years old. If this shrinkage has always been constant, then, using uniformatarian thinking, our solar system could not be billions of years old. 
Tests indicate that only one third of the amount of neutrino particles are being emitted from the sun, compared to that predicted from our understanding of nuclear physics. The phenomenon has been dubbed 'the missing neutrino problem', and no amount of calculations has been able to explain it. It has been the commitment of astrophysicists to a 4.5-5.0 billion year evolutionary age for the sun that has produced this dilemma, yielding the problem unresolved. If the sun was very much younger, and if it was accepted that the sun was indeed shrinking and that it produces some of its heat and light by gravitational collapse, then the problem would be resolved. 
Theoretical astronomy, based on the big bang and evolution, says that in the distant past the Sun was cooler and radiated less. This produces the 'faint early sun' problem which means that conditions on earth would not have been favourable for evolution to have occurred. Theoretical climate models, say that if the sun gave off 1% less radiation, it would produce an ice age on earth. Astronomical models predict that 2 billion years ago the earth would have been covered with ice if the solar radiation was 15-20% less than today's level. A study of geology suggests otherwise. These problems arise when the solar system is viewed from an evolutionary perspective. 
The Poynting-Robertson Effect occurs when the particles that make up light (photons) collide with cosmic dust, slowing them down. Over the billions of years of assumed evolutionary time, the cosmic dust moving in orbit around the sun should have been sorted by size by the Poynting-Robertson Effect
- the lighter particles being slowed down more quickly than the heavy ones. Careful measurements made of meteor streams by the famous astronomer Fred Whipple (Harvard University) showed, however, that there is no sorting whatsoever. This investigation adds weight to the idea that the universe is not billions of years old. 
Sputtering, the phenomenon where photons collide with tiny particles of cosmic dust eventually destroys them, should eventually remove tiny particles from the solar system. If the solar system is as old as the theory of evolution says, then all tiny cosmic dust particles should have been 'swept' away long ago. This is not the case, showing that a young age for the solar system is closer to the truth. Paul D.
"There is no evidence based on solar observation ..... that the Sun is 4.5-5.0 billion years old. I suspect ..... that the Sun is 4.5x109 [ie 4.5 illion] years old. However, given some new and unexpected results to the contrary, and some time for frantic recalculation and theoretical readjustment, I suspect that we could live with Bishop Ussher's value for the age of the Earth and Sun. I don't think we have much in the way of observational evidence in astronomy to conflict with that." Written by solar investigator John Eddy in his article "It's About Time: 4.5 Billion Years", 
- The Australian, April 14, 1990; Astrophysical Journal, Vol. 248, 1981 p:1144-1155; Impact, No. 82, 1980
- Nature, Vol.336, 1988 p:615; Nature, Vol.334, 1988 p:487-493
- Geotimes, Vol. 23, 1978 p:18
- Paul D. Ackerman, "It's a Young World After All", Baker Book House: Grand Rapids (Michigan), 1993 p:33-35
- Ackerman, "It's a Young World After All", Baker Book House: Grand Rapids (Michigan), 1993 p:35
- Geotimes, Vol. 23, 1978 p:18